Nitrate can be present in groundwater from fertilizers and agricultural activity, and has increased in presence in recent years. The increase is attributable to the 20-fold increase
in the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

The USEPA has set the Nitrate MCL measured as nitrogen at 10 mg/l. Nitrate contamination is a concern because ingestion of Nitrate in drinking water by infants can lead to oxygen deficiency in the blood, a potentially fatal condition. Other damaging effects can be miscarriage and an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Low levels of Perchlorate have been detected in both drinking water and groundwater in 26 states in the US, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Perchlorate naturally occurs in soils with high concentrations
of organic salts that convert to Perchlorate in the presence of sunlight and/or ultraviolet light. In some places, Perchlorate is detected because of contamination from industrial sites that use or manufacture it. In other places,
it could be present because of the use of Chilean fertilizers, which were imported to the U.S. by the hundreds of
tons in the early 19th century. Perchlorate adversely affects human health by interfering with iodine uptake into the thyroid gland.

Layne's Nitrate and Perchlorate removal solution is Advanced Amberpack Municipal – a low waste ion exchange system. With the continual emphasis on minimizing the environmental impact, the cost of treatment and disposal
of waste residuals, Advanced Amberpack Municipal provides an innovative and commercially proven solution to
this need.