Approximately 80% of the water supplies across the United States experience varying degrees of hard water. Although hard water is not considered a health hazard, it can result in taste and odor issues in drinking water.

The minerals that cause water hardness are calcium and magnesium and when combined with bicarbonates, sulfates, chlorides and nitrates form salts that are responsible for scaling and deposits in plumbing pipes. Hard water scaling and deposits can also decrease the life of home or office appliances and fixtures.

Most hard water minerals can be treated with a water softening system. For larger municipal or industrial systems, Layne's low waste ion exchange systems are the most economical solutions. In cases of extremely hard water,
an RO system may need to follow the ion exchange treatment.